Electroplating industry is an important processing industry in China According to a rough estimate, there are 15,000 electroplating factories in China with a total number of over 500,000 employees in the industry and more than 5,000 production lines and a production capacity of 253 million m plating area. Plating industry output value of about 10 billion yuan. In the recent decade, township and village enterprises have been developing rapidly. China's electroplating process involves the most widely used is galvanized, copper, nickel, chromium. As no government department has long been responsible for the management of the electroplating industry, the distribution and development of the electroplating industry lacks overall and complete planning. Due to many factories, small scale, low degree of specialization, resulting in low production efficiency, poor economic efficiency, most state-owned electroplating enterprises are facing losses. Investment in the electroplating industry is not enough. In the past ten years, investment in the electroplating industry was limited, investments in technology upgrading and technology introduction were still very scarce, limiting the renewal and development of plating industry technology. The lack of complete absorption and dissemination of imported technologies leads to unnecessary duplication of funds and waste of capital, especially in electroplating additives and specialty chemicals. Due to the lack of professional training and on-the-job training, the technical level of production workers is low. Low level of enterprise management, the vast majority of electroplating enterprises still follow the extensive mode of operation and management, to adapt to changes in the market ability. Some joint ventures and export enterprises, most companies do not have a sound industrial management system, the majority of enterprises lack of liquid analysis and coating instrumentation and technical strength. High material consumption, low efficiency, the vast majority of electroplating enterprises material consumption, water consumption are much higher than the foreign average. According to some of the cleansing in the industrial production more advanced today, people are more and more serious concern about industrial pollution, especially the electroplating industry, which produces industrial waste is even more polluted the beautiful land of the motherland in a number of emerging Industrial cities, electroplating industry pollution is more and more serious.
In some industrialized countries, a new spraying technology is now being adopted to replace the ordinary industrial plating and vacuum plating. The new technology is nano-plating technology. Nano-spraying technology belongs to the world's leading high-tech, we should understand the nano-spraying technology to promote the nano-spray process of market-oriented, so that the technology is widely used in industrial production to promote the development of the surface coating industry for the community to seek welfare. What is nano-plating? In simple terms: nano-plating is the use of special solutions, spraying the way so that the need to electroplate objects mirror the effect of high-tech. Because the surface effects such as electroplating and vacuum plating the same time can be anti-electromagnetic wave conductive function, the cost is only one-third of the traditional conductive paint. In the surface treatment industry, environmentally friendly nano-color plating is favored by the industry, coupled with the innovative practicality of its protective technology with a wide range of applicability environments, huge value-added and superior quality, All walks of life attention.
Experts predict: The advent of nano-plating, in the field of surface treatment has a milestone, it declares the advent of a new era of surface treatment. Nano-spray to create a new era of surface treatment, which has the following characteristics:
(1) environment-friendly technology. Cyanide-free, does not contain harmful heavy metals, does not pollute the environment, does not harm human health, is an environmentally friendly, safe coating process.
(2) energy-saving technology. Small investment, low energy consumption, cost less than 50% of electroplating, relative to investment, pollution, high energy consumption of the traditional electroplating process has an absolute investment advantage.
(3) Jetted plating process. Spray coating, process is simple. Golden dazzling bright, elegant silver elegance, chrome Cheng Ying water, simple and dignified copper, Niu Niu Ying Hui, but also can be deployed into red, yellow, orange, green, blue, purple hundreds of crystal effects, streamer Yi Cai, magnificent and colorful. Coating adhesion, high hardness, with excellent impact resistance, scratch resistance, corrosion resistance, temperature resistance and weather resistance aging properties.
(4) automatic, mass production process. Not only suitable for a small number of personalized spray, but also suitable for mass production line needs, according to customer demand design appropriate plating system and production line equipment, devices and processes to meet the needs of large-scale production and operating conditions and operating conditions and so on.
It is understood that the nano-spray coating surface treatment is the only available with decorative plating comparable to the coating process, obtained gold, silver, chromium, nickel, copper and other coatings with realistic metal texture, rich colors; nano-spray Is the coating technology since the advent of the highest reflectance coating technology, chromium plating can reach 100% reflectivity, forming a full bright "mirror" effect; nano-spraying can achieve the entire process of cleaner production, plagued the plating industry, environmental pollution and health Hazard problems cease to exist in the process route; Nano-plating can not plating, plating is not.
Nano-spray widely applicable to: metal, resin, plastic, glass, ceramics, acrylic, wood, plastic wood, phosphorus and magnesium, calcium plastic, cement and other materials. Used in automotive, electrical appliances, handicrafts, computer mobile phones, jewelry, high-grade furniture and other surface decoration industry.
Nano plating technology equipment:
l, split machine design, back to infiltration machine and spray machine separate design, easy to use.
2, set aside two rows of guns interface, in order to increase the production capacity of the equipment upgrade.
3, special spray gun atomization effect, thereby reducing the consumption of materials.
Environmental nano-coating process principle: the use of special equipment and specific raw materials, the application of chemical reaction principle by direct spraying to achieve the effect of electroplating, the surface was sprayed objects appear chrome nickel sand nickel gold and silver copper and various colors (red and purple Green and blue) and other glossy mirror effect, the surface of the body and be coated with the same bonding effect and plating
Degreasing → washing → descaling (metal work pieces) → washing → spray primer → drying → spray reflective layer → dry → spray finish → drying → test packaging. Nano-plating has the following process advantages:
(1) short process, easy construction;
(2) less washing process, low water consumption;
(3) no electricity "electroplating", low power consumption;
(4) no passivation (commonly used chromate plating plating passivation) process to reduce wastewater discharge;
(5) not subject to the geometric limitations of the workpiece, after plating without polishing;
(6) compared with non-metallic plating, nano-plating can be carried out on all solid materials, the color can be free deployment, and plating only applies to some non-metallic materials, a single color, and must be metallized before plating and a series of pre- Treatment, cumbersome process.
In zinc alloy, aluminum alloy, copper alloy substrate for nano-plating, the advantage is more obvious.
In this way, more new industries can be created. Nano Spray Technology's Role in Environmental Protection: The purpose of nano-spray technology is to avoid a series of problems caused by the use of electroplating processes (such as waste treatment and harmful heavy metals Treatment and environmental issues) The use of nano-spray process does not exist on the above problems, because it does not contain harmful heavy metals, is a safe green high-tech spray technology Waste after treatment does not contain any harmful heavy metals, safe and pollution-free, no Any pollution and electroplating containing strong harmful heavy metals, environmental pollution brought to the industry is no longer the same as the previous plating methods that labor-consuming but by direct spraying the surface of the painted objects showing a variety of colors mirror effect Nano-spray technology Is sprayed by spraying process with this method of product has excellent weather resistance, abrasion resistance and impact resistance, suitable for large domestic and foreign manufacturers and large-scale electrical manufacturers precision products such as the requirements of other industries can also be The surface decoration, to be sprayed pre-treatment of the workpiece: usually plastic workpiece surface are included Release agent, must be removed by cryogenic ultrasonic degreasing agent, divided into four processes: plus degreasing agent ultrasonic, cleaning, ultrasonic, water cleaning water cleaning cycle remove the air back-up (Note: the workpiece storage must be free from secondary pollution ); ESP and on-line part: After the pre-treatment of the workpiece electrostatic precipitator with a belt line into the studio, the workers inserted in the spraying automatic transmission line, inserted in the spraying line on the workpiece by the net electricity dust After delivery to the primer spray booth, after the completion of the primer coating spray drying oven delivery (if the UV light curing primer should be equipped with a lamp for drying, drying time), the workpiece after drying delivery To the nano-spray booth, into the nano-spray booth is the first ultra-pure water spray cleaning, followed by spray active agent, followed by ultra-pure water spray cleaning, followed by nano-spray agent, and then spray ultra-pure water, followed by spraying stabilizer, After the ultrapure water is cleaned, it is air-dried with clean compressed air, then transferred to the page and then sent to the drying room to be bake. The dried workpiece is transported to the top spray booth to spray and protect the top coat. After the top coat is sprayed, it is transported to the drying oven dry(If using UV light curing paint should be equipped with lights for drying, drying time). At this point, the entire nano-spray process to complete the production of nano-spray line should pay attention to the following aspects: the compressed air provided to each spray gun must be freeze-dried and filtered to achieve four levels of spraying requirements; spraying should Good ventilation and air supply device, up to 10000 clean room drying channel must be well sealed, the entire process must be dust-free and non-polluting; spray all the water used must be the conductivity of ultra-pure water (general water conductivity ), Can not tap water or distilled water and mineral water. Spray plating process must prevent the cross-contamination of a variety of reactants, or can not reach the effect of spraying; spray plating time must pay attention to whether the amount of material out of the average pressure of the valve, the gas evenly, double spray gun The intersection of electroplating solution and the intersection of aerosol; spraying reaction speed is too slow, spraying time is too long, the pressure of the agent is not uniform, the atomization is not complete, the spraying distance is less than or greater than will result in yellowing the prepared surface After use, the use of white or slightly yellow can continue to use, the precipitate should stop using Replace the fresh active agent is the first to wash the container thoroughly wash the primer paint spray gun every day, so as not to affect the spraying effect The best temperature spray workshop , When the reaction time is slower than the spraying or white dancer spray activator to be sprayed evenly, the material completely covered after spraying the activator must be rinsed with ultrapure water, otherwise it will cause the spray surface with black spots or hair black. Nano-spray generated wastewater treatment is relatively simple, because the entire process of spraying with very low acid-base composition, water spray booth spray unit is a cycle of reciprocating use, it is generally a period of time to filter it once again when the cycle Water is indeed dirty can not be used, you can test the pH, the general treatment up to discharge standards can be discharged, decorative and high corrosion resistance process technology will continue to evolve.
With the development of automobiles, electronics, household appliances, aviation, aerospace industry, construction industry and related decoration industry and the increasing demand for beautification life in our country, the demand for decorativeness and corrosion resistance of electroplating products will increase obviously Some of the traditional decorative plating may be sprayed, PVD replaced, functional plating product demand is on the rise. Some of the most polluting electroplating processes may be replaced by clean electroplating industries such as cyanide-free plating, chromium trivalent chromium plating, generation pickaxe and chrome plating. Some high performance, non-polluting surface engineering high-tech will enter the Chinese market, such as Dacromet coating, Crowsail process.
The non-water-soluble nano-solid particles added to the plating solution, in the plating process so that the main metal co-deposition on the substrate, the resulting coating is nano-composite coating. Such coating has more excellent than ordinary composite coating performance, can greatly improve the coating temperature, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and so on. Thus nanocomposite electroplating technology has become the focus of competing research at home and abroad in recent years. Currently has prepared a variety of nano-composite coatings with different functions, and some processes have been applied to the production practice. 4 Nanoparticles in the bath of the stability and dispersion Nanoparticles in the mixed bath for a long time to maintain stability and uniform dispersion of nanocomposite plating technology is one of the key technologies. , But so far there is no mature method. Usually by adding a suitable dispersant and choose the appropriate way to stir to achieve. Dispersants commonly used in composite electroplating are mainly surfactants, inorganic salts, complexing agents and polyelectrolytes. The commonly used methods include mechanical stirring, air stirring and ultrasonic stirring. Study on the deposition mechanism of composite electroplating lags behind its technological research. In recent years, more influential in this respect, the representative mechanism models include Gugliel mi model, MT M model, Valdes model, parabolic orbit model and Hwang model. Various models can explain some experimental facts to a certain extent, but all have some limitations. The Gugliel mi model is the first one to be validated by experimental results. Some other models are usually based on this or proposed improvements to this model. The addition of nano-particles can significantly improve the performance of composite coatings, and can save materials and reduce pollution, so the research and application of nano-composite plating technology has broad prospects for development. However, due to the limited understanding of nanomaterials and the imperfection of composite electroplating, the research on nanocomposite electroplating has just begun. The co-deposition mechanism of nanoparticles and metal particles, the stability and dispersion of nanoparticles in the plating bath, how to improve the co-precipitation of nanoparticles in the composite coating and the relationship between the behavior and the properties of the nanoparticles in the coating In people further study.
In recent years, with the rapid development of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, nanomaterials and nanotechnology began to be applied to surface engineering, thus forming a new field called "nanosurface engineering." According to some experts and academicians, surface engineering has experienced two stages of development, the first generation of surface engineering marked by the traditional single surface engineering technology and the second generation of surface engineering represented by the composite surface engineering technology. Now it has entered into The third generation of surface engineering stage - the nano-materials and nano-technology and traditional surface engineering and application of nano-surface engineering stage. With the people's understanding of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, as people renew the concept of surface engineering in the past, an era full of modern advanced technology for nanometer surface engineering design of parts and components is approaching. Nanometer surface engineering will surely play a Great role for the national economic construction services for the benefit of mankind.
Article from NdFeB Industry Network